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14-06-2006, 11:54 AM   مشاركة رقم :: 81
عضو فعّال
 
لا توجد صورة


تاريخ التسجيل: 29-11-2003
المشاركات: 850

افتراضي



Color Atlas of Pharmacology2005
3rd edition
414 pp, 170 color plates
softcover
ISBN-10: 158890332x / 313781703x
ISBN-13: 9781588903327 / 9783137817031

$39.95 / EUR 34.95

De******ion




Updated with the most important new substances and scientific developments, the third edition of The Color Atlas of Pharmacology makes it easier than ever for students, nurses, and practicing physicians to keep up with the latest developments in this constantly changing field. Featuring a user-friendly layout, jargon-free language, and more than 160 spectacular color charts and illustrations, the atlas is divided in to four, color-coded sections:


Part 1 - General pharmacology - includes de******ions of substance formulation, absorption, distribution, elimination, and molecular mechanisms of action

Part 2 - Systems pharmacology - with special emphasis on the functional and therapeutic aspects of a wide range of medicinal agents

Part 3 - Therapy of selected diseases - such as osteoporosis, acute myocardial infarction, migraine, asthma, tropical diseases, and many more

Part 4 - Drug Index - helpfully listed by substance, generic, and brand names

Concise, portable, and packed with information, the third edition of The Color Atlas of Pharmacology is the most practical first-stop reference for today's busy healthcare professional.

 
14-06-2006, 11:54 AM   مشاركة رقم :: 82
عضو فعّال
 
لا توجد صورة


تاريخ التسجيل: 29-11-2003
المشاركات: 850

افتراضي



Color Atlas of Pharmacology2005
3rd edition
414 pp, 170 color plates
softcover
ISBN-10: 158890332x / 313781703x
ISBN-13: 9781588903327 / 9783137817031

$39.95 / EUR 34.95

De******ion




Updated with the most important new substances and scientific developments, the third edition of The Color Atlas of Pharmacology makes it easier than ever for students, nurses, and practicing physicians to keep up with the latest developments in this constantly changing field. Featuring a user-friendly layout, jargon-free language, and more than 160 spectacular color charts and illustrations, the atlas is divided in to four, color-coded sections:


Part 1 - General pharmacology - includes de******ions of substance formulation, absorption, distribution, elimination, and molecular mechanisms of action

Part 2 - Systems pharmacology - with special emphasis on the functional and therapeutic aspects of a wide range of medicinal agents

Part 3 - Therapy of selected diseases - such as osteoporosis, acute myocardial infarction, migraine, asthma, tropical diseases, and many more

Part 4 - Drug Index - helpfully listed by substance, generic, and brand names

Concise, portable, and packed with information, the third edition of The Color Atlas of Pharmacology is the most practical first-stop reference for today's busy healthcare professional.

 
14-06-2006, 11:54 AM   مشاركة رقم :: 83
عضو فعّال
 
لا توجد صورة


تاريخ التسجيل: 29-11-2003
المشاركات: 850

افتراضي



Color Atlas of Pharmacology2005
3rd edition
414 pp, 170 color plates
softcover
ISBN-10: 158890332x / 313781703x
ISBN-13: 9781588903327 / 9783137817031

$39.95 / EUR 34.95

De******ion




Updated with the most important new substances and scientific developments, the third edition of The Color Atlas of Pharmacology makes it easier than ever for students, nurses, and practicing physicians to keep up with the latest developments in this constantly changing field. Featuring a user-friendly layout, jargon-free language, and more than 160 spectacular color charts and illustrations, the atlas is divided in to four, color-coded sections:


Part 1 - General pharmacology - includes de******ions of substance formulation, absorption, distribution, elimination, and molecular mechanisms of action

Part 2 - Systems pharmacology - with special emphasis on the functional and therapeutic aspects of a wide range of medicinal agents

Part 3 - Therapy of selected diseases - such as osteoporosis, acute myocardial infarction, migraine, asthma, tropical diseases, and many more

Part 4 - Drug Index - helpfully listed by substance, generic, and brand names

Concise, portable, and packed with information, the third edition of The Color Atlas of Pharmacology is the most practical first-stop reference for today's busy healthcare professional.

 
01-07-2006, 07:58 AM   مشاركة رقم :: 84
عضو متميّز
 
لا توجد صورة


تاريخ التسجيل: 23-06-2006
المشاركات: 1,772

افتراضي

موضوع منقول عن الالتهاب الكبدي في الاطفال و اخطار انتقاله من الام الي الطفل

RECOMMENDATIONS ON NEWBORN SCREENING FOR HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION
OVERVIEW

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of death from liver disease and a major public health problem in adults in the United States. In the general US population, the prevalence of HCV infection is estimated to be 1.8%. In children, however, the seroprevalence ranges from 0.2% in children younger than 12 years to 0.4% in adolescents aged 12-19 years. This leads to an estimated 240,000 children with antibodies to HCV in the United States. Perinatal transmission from infected mothers is a recognized mode of transmission of HCV infection and is currently the most common route of infection in children. In this newsletter, we present the current screening recommendations for newborns born to mothers infected with HCV. We also review considerations specific for children infected with HCV.

PERINATAL TRANSMISSION OF HCV INFECTION

In the United States, the seroprevalence of HCV infection in pregnant women is approximately 1-2%. Perinatal transmission of HCV infection occurs only from mothers who are positive for HCV RNA at the time of delivery. The risk of perinatal transmission is about 5-6%. If the mother is co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and has especially high levels of HCV RNA, the rate of transmission may increase up to 19%.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INFANTS BORN TO MOTHERS INFECTED WITH HCV

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), children born to mothers infected with HCV are at intermediate risk of infection. The current screening practice as recommended by the CDC and the Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases published by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is as follows:

All children born to mothers infected with HCV should be tested for HCV infection.
Testing is performed by detecting the presence of antibodies (anti-HCV). However, because of the presence of passive maternal antibodies in infants aged 18 months or younger, testing should be delayed until after that time.
Reverse tran******ase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays for detection of HCV RNA may be performed at age 1-2 months, if earlier diagnosis is desired.
All infected children should be vaccinated against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent superinfection, which can lead to life-threatening clinical hepatitis.

IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS IN CHILDREN

Breastfeeding of infants born to mothers infected with HCV


Maternal HCV infection is not a contraindication to breastfeeding, according to the current guidelines of the US Public Health Service and the AAP. HCV transmission through breastfeeding has not been demonstrated in anti-HCV positive, anti-HIV negative mothers. Rates of transmission are similar between breastfed infants and bottle-fed infants. However, transmission through breastfeeding is, theoretically, possible. Antibodies to HCV and HCV RNA have been detected in breast milk from mothers infected with HCV. Mothers with cracked and bleeding nipples should consider abstaining from breastfeeding. A mother who is infected with HCV should decide whether or not to breastfeed her infant after an informed discussion with her health care professionals.

Child care of children infected with HCV

Exclusion of children infected with HCV from child care centers is not indicated, nor is restriction from school attendance or contact sports.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

Improvements are needed in the diagnosis, treatment, and, most importantly, prevention of HCV in children. Stricter strategies are needed to screen and identify infected children. A prophylactic vaccine, as currently present for HAV and HBV, may be an effective control for HCV infection in children.

In addition, further research is needed to study the course of HCV infection in children, specifically the chronicity of the infection, presentation of symptoms, and the response to treatment. At this time, very little is known about the course of HCV infection in children who are infected perinatally. Current methods of treatment in adults also need to be better studied in children. This is especially true in children younger than 3 years, in whom current therapies are contraindicated at this time.

REFERENCES

Aach RD, Yomtovian RA, Hack M. Neonatal and pediatric posttransfusion hepatitis C: a look back and a look forward. Pediatrics 2000;105(4 Pt 1):836-42.

Alter MJ, Kuhnert WL, Finelli L; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for laboratory testing and result reporting of antibody to hepatitis C virus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003 Feb 7;52(RR-3):1-13.

American Academy of Pediatrics. Transmission of infectious agents via human milk. In: Pickering LK, ed. Red Book: 2003 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 26th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2003:118-21.

American Academy of Pediatrics. Hepatitis C. In: Pickering LK, ed. Red Book: 2003 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 26th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2003:336-40.

Bortolotti F, Resti M, Giacchino R, et al. Changing epidemiologic pattern of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in Italian children. J Pediatr 1998;133:378-81.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998 Oct 16; 47(RR-19): 1-39.

Gartner LM, Morton J, Lawrence RA, et al. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics 2005;115(2):496-506.

Hardikar W, Elliott EJ, Jones CA. The silent infection: should we be testing for perinatal hepatitis C and, if so, how? Med J Aust 2006;184(2):54-5.

Jessop AB, Watson B, Mazar R, Andrel J. Assessment of screening, treatment, and prevention of perinatal infections in the Philadelphia birth cohort. Am J Med Qual 2005;20(5):253-61.

Resti M, Bortolotti F, Vajro P, et al. Guidelines for the screening and follow-up of infants born to anti-HCV positive mothers. Dig Liver Dis 2003;35(7):453-7.

Resti M, Jara P, Hierro L, et al. Clinical features and progression of perinatally acquired hepatitis C virus infection. J Med Virol 2003;70(3):373-7.

Strader DB, Wright T, Thomas DL, et al. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C. Hepatology 2004;39(4):1147-71.

 
05-07-2006, 06:37 PM   مشاركة رقم :: 85
قلم فضي

الصورة الرمزية منير الشيخ


تاريخ التسجيل: 28-12-2002
المشاركات: 3,308

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